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پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:تأثیر بازخورد استنباطی بر روی دقت و روانی بیان زبان آموزان ایرانی سطح متوسط

پایان نامه رشته :زبان انگلیسی

عنوان : پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:تأثیر بازخورد استنباطی بر روی دقت و روانی بیان زبان آموزان ایرانی سطح متوسط

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

واحد تربت حیدریّه


پایان نامه برای دریافت درجه ی کارشناسی ارشد در رشته ی زبانهای خارجه گرایش آموزش زبان انگلیسی



   تأثیر بازخورد استنباطی بر روی دقت و روانی بیان زبان آموزان ایرانی سطح متوسط


استاد راهنما

استاد محترم جناب آقای دکتر محسن مبارکی


شهریورماه ۱۳۹۳

هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی بازخورد استنباطی بر روی دقت و روانی بیان است. بدین منظور شصت زبان  آموز دختر سطح متوسط موسسه زبان معرفت از طریق آزمون همگون سازی(PET) انتخاب شدند و بطور تصادفی در دو گروه کنترل و آزمایش تقسیم شدند. سپس از طریق پیش آزمون ،بصورت یک مصاحبه ساخت مند، سطح روانی و دقت بیان آنها سنجیده شد. در کلاس گروه آزمایش به مدت سیزده هفته بازخورد استنباطی انجام شد در صورتی که گروه کنترل هیچ بازخوردی در این مدت دریافت نکردند.بعد از سیزده هفته از هر دو گروه پس آزمون ،بصورت مصاحبه ساخت مند ، گرفته شد. سپس برای سنجش تأثیر گذاری بازخورد استنباطی از روش های آماری ANCOVA و t-test استفاده  نمرات پیش آزمون و پس آزمون با یکدیگر مقایسه شد.در نتیجه ی تحلیل آماری مشخص شد که بازخورد استنباطی سبب بهبود دقت و روانی بیان زبان آموزان گردیده است.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements. v
Abstract vi
Chapter One. 1
Introduction. 1
۱.۱. Background of Purpose. 1
۱.۲. Theoretical Framework. 2
Corrective Feedback Types. 2
۱.۲.۱. Positive vs. Negative Feedback. 4
۱.۲.۲. Implicit vs. Explicit Feedback. 5
۱.۲.۳. Reformulations vs. Prompts Feedback. 6
۱.۳. Statement of the Problem 8
۱.۴. Research Questions: 9
۱.۵. Research Hypotheses. 9
۱.۶. Significance of the Study: 10
۱.۷. Definition of Key Terms. 10
Chapter Two. 13
Review of Related Literature. 13
۲.۱. Introduction. 13
۲.۳. Hypotheses behind Corrective Feedback. 14
۲.۳.۱. Schmidt‘s Noticing Hypothesis. 14
۲.۳.۲. Long‘s Interaction Hypothesis. 15
۲.۳.۳. Swain’s Output Hypothesis. 16
۲.۴. Corrective Feedback and Accuracy. 16
۲.۵. Corrective Feedback and Fluency. 18
Chapter Three. 21
Methodology. 21
۳.۱. Introduction. 21
۳.۲. Participants and Setting. 21
۳.۳. Instrumentation. 21
۳.۴. Procedure. 23
۳.۵. Study Design. 24
Chapter Four. 25
Data analysis, Discussions and Results. 25
۴.۱. Introduction. 25
۴.۲. Data analysis and investigation of research questions. 25
۴.۲.۱. Descriptive Statistics. 25
۴.۲.۲ Inferential statistics. 29
۴.۳. Discussion. 34
Chapter Five. 36
Conclusion. 36
۵.۱. Introduction. 36
۵.۲. Conclusion. 36
۵.۳. Pedagogical Implications. 38
۵.۴. Suggestions for Further Research. 38
References. 39
Appendix (1): Test specification. 44
Appendix (2): Accuracy measures. 48
Appendix (3): Fluency measures. 49
Appendix (4): Homogeneity Test and Pretest 50
Appendix (5): posttest 51


The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of elicitation feedback on speaking accuracy and fluency. To fulfill the purpose of the study, 60 female intermediate learners at Marefat Language Institute were chosen by means of administering a proficiency test preliminary English test (PET). They were randomly divided into two homogeneous groups, one as the experimental group and the other as the control one. These learners were pretested through a structured interview to check their current speaking accuracy and fluency level.
Of course, the experimental group was provided with elicitation feedback, while the control group received no feedback. After thirteen sessions of treatment, the two groups were post tested through another structured interview. The scores of the participants demonstrated that the experimental group performed better than the control group. The analysis of the data was done through the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and t-test. Finally, it was concluded that employing elicitation feedback has positive effect on speaking accuracy and fluency.
Key words: elicitation feedback, accuracy, fluency

Chapter One


۱.۱. Background of Purpose

English is an international language and the desire for learning English for communication is increasing. So, many language learners seemingly attend language classes to improve their speaking ability. According to Folse (2006), the ability to speak a language is synonymous with knowing that language for most people, since speech is the most basic means of human communication. Realizing the high importance of this skill in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) programs is very important to developing ways of giving feedback that are in line with various L2 acquisition theories in order to reduce students` errors in their speaking and scientifically scrutinizing the effects of them.
Over the years, the role of corrective feedback (CF) in EFL or English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms has been an argumentative issue. Feedback is an important part in teaching and learning, so it has been considered in both second language theories and language pedagogy. It is a challenge for language teachers to ensure that learners develop accuracy in their speaking as well as fluency. Feedback has a corrective function so giving more attention to it can improve the learners` performance through learning process. Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving, and processing information (Brown, 2001; Burns & Joyce, 1997).
Teachers should be careful in providing corrective feedback because it has both positive and negative effects. The positive effects of feedback can make language learning more effective since it helps L2 learners notice the gap between their utterances and the target forms, which elicits uptake or repair. This can promote changes in their inter language systems and lead them to the next linguistic developmental stage. Moreover, when learners understand that making mistakes is a part of the learning process, and that their teachers try to help them learn target forms, they are likely to take risks and build up confidence through practice. On the other hand, the negative effects can hinder learners’ language development by creating barriers between teachers and their students and raise the students’ level of anxiety (Allwright & Bailey, 1991; MacIntyre & Gardner, 1994).
تعداد صفحه : ۶۰
قیمت : ۱۴۷۰۰ تومان

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