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پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:مقایسه تاثیر روش داستانگویی و ایفای نقش برانگیزه زبان آموزان

پایان نامه رشته :زبان انگلیسی

گرایش :آموزش

عنوان : پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:مقایسه تاثیر روش داستانگویی و ایفای نقش برانگیزه زبان آموزان

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

واحد تهران مرکزی

دانشکده زبانهای خارجی ، گروه زبان انگلیسی

پایان نامه برای دریافت  درجه کارشناسی ارشد(M.A)

گرایش : آموزش


مقایسه تاثیر روش داستانگویی و ایفای نقش برانگیزه زبان آموزان

استاد راهنما:

دکتر عبدالله برادران

استاد مشاور:

دکتر شعله کلاهی

سال تحصیلی: ۹۳-۱۳۹۲

هدف از انجام این مطالعه مقایسه اثر داستان گویی و ایفای برانگیزه زبان آموزان بوده است. بدین منظور پس از برگزاری آزمون (PET) در ابتدای مطالعه به منظور همسان سازی، از بین ۹۰ زبان آموز در سطح متوسط و در گروه سنی ۱۳ تا ۱۷ سال موسسه زبان های خارجی آریان در شهر گرگان۶۰  نفر انتخاب شدند و بدین ترتیب دو گروه مختلف آزمایشی را شکل دادند: ۳۰ نفر در گروه آزمایشی ۱ و ۳۰ نفر در گروه آزمایشی ۲ . پرسشنامه انگیزه گاردنر به عنوان پیش آزمون ازهر دو گروه گرفته شد. سپس گروه آزمایشی  ۱مورد آموزش از طریق داستان گویی و گروه آزمایشی ۲، مورد آموزش از طریق ایفای نقش در آموزشگاه قرار گرفتند. پس از سپری کردن ۲۰ جلسه آموزشی در یک ترم،همان پرسشنامه،به عنوان پس آزمون برگزار و در پایان دوره آموزشی میانگین نمرات هر دو گروه از طریق آزمون مستقل تى محاسبه شد. نتایج تفاوت معناداریدر میزان انگیزه گروه آزمایشی ایفای نقشنسبت به گروه آزمایشی دوم نشان داد واین گروه نسبت به گروه داستان گویی توانست برتری داشته باشد.
This study was an attempt to investigate the comparative effect of storytelling and role playing on EFL learners’ motivation. To fulfill the purpose of this study, 60 female learners with the age range of 13 to 18 years old were selected among a total number of 90 learners studying at Arian Institute in Gorgan through their performance on a piloted PET for homogenizing them prior to the study. Four classes with 15 participants in each were randomly assigned to two experimental groups with two different treatments. Both experimental groups attended 20 sessions with the same material, and the Gardner’s attitude and motivation test battery (AMTB) was administered as the pretest and posttest of the study. The mean scores of the two groups on this posttest were computed through an independent samples t-test in order to test the hypothesis raised in the study. The results demonstrated that learners benefited significantly from role playing and storytelling instructions.

ABSTRACT                                                                                                          ii                                  
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                                                     iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                       iv
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES                                                                    vii
CHAPTER I: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE                                                ۱                                                                                                                                
۱.۱. Introduction                                                                                                   ۲
۱.۲. Statement of the Problem                                                                                ۵
۱.۳. Statement of the Research Question                                                                ۶
۱.۴. Statement of the Research Hypothesis                                                            ۶
۱.۵. Definition of Key Terms                                                                                  ۶
۱.۶. Significance of the Study                                                                                 ۸
۱.۷. Limitations and Delimitation                                                                           ۹
۱.۷.۱. Limitations                                                                                              ۹        ۱.۷.۲. Delimitation                                                                                                   ۱۰
۲.۱. Introduction                                                                                                   ۱۲
۲.۲. History of Storytelling                                                                                   ۱۵
۲.۲.۱. Storytelling in the English Language Classroom                                  ۱۶
۲.۲.۲. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and
Storytelling                                                                                            ۱۷
۲.۲.۳. Storytelling and Task-based Language Teaching                                  ۱۹

۲.۲.۴. The National Curriculum, Communicative Language                          ۲۰
Teaching (CLT) and Storytelling
۲.۲.۵. Learner Autonomy and Storytelling                                                      ۲۱
۲.۲.۶. Multiple Intelligences (MI) and Storytelling                                        ۲۲
۲.۲.۷. Rationale for Storytelling                                                                      ۲۴
۲.۲.۸. Studies on Storytelling                                                                          ۲۴
۲.۳. Role playing                                                                                             ۲۶
۲.۳.۱. Role playing and Task-based Language Teaching                                ۲۶
۲.۳.۲. Advantages of Role playing                                                                  ۲۷
۲.۳.۳ Disadvantages of Role playing                                                               ۳۱
۲.۳.۴. Rationale for Using Role playing                                                          ۳۲
۲.۴ Motivation                                                                                                 ۳۴
۲.۴.۱. Types of Motivation                                                                          ۳۷
۲.۴.۱.۱ Instrumental and Integrative Motivation                                                     ۳۷
۲.۴.۱.۲ Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation                                                   ۳۸
۲.۵.Theories and Constructs Reflecting Motivational Beliefs                                 ۳۹
and Attitudes
۲.۵.۱ Attribution Theory                                                                                 ۳۹
۲.۵.۲ Self- efficacy                                                                                           ۴۱
۲.۵.۳ Mastery Experience                                                                                ۴۱
۲.۵.۴Social Modeling                                                                                       ۴۱
۲.۵.۵.Social Persuasion                                                                                    ۴۲
۲.۵.۶.Psychological Response                                                                                ۴۲
۲.۵.۷.Self – worth Theory                                                                                ۴۳
۲.۵.۸.Goal Theories                                                                                         ۴۳
۲.۵.۹. Self – Determination Theory (SDT)                                                      ۴۴
CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY                                                                    ۴۶       
۳.۱. Introduction                                                                                                       ۴۷
۳.۲. Participants                                                                                                       ۴۷
۳.۳. Instrumentations and Materials                                                                       ۴۸
۳.۳.۱.    Tests                                                                                                              ۴۸
۳.۳.۱.۱. The Preliminary English Test (PET)                                                    ۴۸
۳.۳.۱.۲. Attitude and Motivation Test Battery a                                                      ۵۰
Pretest and a Posttest
۳.۳.۲. Materials                                                                                                        ۵۱
۳.۳.۲.۱.                                          Main Course Book for Both Groups
۳.۳.۲.۲. Flashcards and Posters for Both Groups                                                    ۵۱
۳.۴. Procedure                                                                                                          ۵۱
۳.۵. Design                                                                                                              ۵۴
۳.۶. Statistical Analyses                                                                                          ۵۵
CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                ۵۶       
۴.۱. Introduction                                                                                                      ۵۷
۴.۲. Participant Selection                                                                                        ۵۷
۴.۲.۱ PET Pilot Study                                                                                              ۵۸
۴.۲.۱.۱ PET Administration for Homogenizing                                                      ۵۹
the Participants
۴.۲.۲. Inferential Statics                                                                                           ۶۷
۴.۲.۲.۱. Post-Test Results                                                                               ۷۱
۴.۲.۲.۲. Post-Test Descriptive Statistics                                                                  ۷۱
۴.۳. Testing the Null Hypotheses                                                                            ۷۴
۴.۴. Discussion                                                                                                       ۷۵

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND PEDAGOGICAL                                    ۸۲
۵.۱. Introduction                                                                                                   ۸۳
۵.۲. Summary of the Findings                                                                              ۸۳
۵.۳. Pedagogical Implications                                                                               ۸۵
۵.۳.۱. Implication for EFL Teachers                                                                    ۸۵
۵.۳.۲. Implication for EFL Syllabus Designers                                                    ۸۶
۵.۴. Suggestions for Further Research                                                                  ۸۷

REFERENCES                                                                                                      ۸۹

APPENDICES                                                                                                       ۹۷
Appendix A: Preliminary English Test (PET)                                                        ۹۸
Appendix B: Appendix B: Writing Rating Scale                                                  ۱۲۰
Appendix C: Attitude and Motivation Test Battery                                              ۱۲۲
by Gardner, 1985 (AMTB)
Appendix D: Sample Lesson                                                                                 ۱۲۶
Table 4.1 Descriptive Statistics of the PET Pilot Administration                       ۵۸
Table 4.2 Reliability Estimates of the PET before and after Removing             ۵۹
Malfunctioning Items
Table 4.3 Reliability of the PET in First Homogenization                                  ۶۰
Table 4.4 Descriptive Statistics of the Two Ratings of PET Writing                 ۶۰
Section (First Homogenization)
Table 4.5 Correlation between the Two Ratings of the PET                               ۶۱
Writing Tasks (First Homogenization)
Table 4.6: Descriptive Statistics of Total PET (First Homogenization)             ۶۲
Table 4.7 Reliability of the PET (Second Homogenization)                               ۶۲
Table 4.8 Descriptive Statistics of the Two Ratings of PET Writing                 ۶۳
Section (First Second Homogenization)
Table 4.9 Correlation between the Two Ratings of the PET Writing                 ۶۴
Tasks (Second Homogenization)
Table 4.10 Descriptive Statistics of Total PET (Second Homogenization)        ۶۴
Table 4.11 Descriptive Statistics of the Total PET Scores of the Two               ۶۵
Experimental Groups
Table 4.12: Independent Samples Test on the Total PET at the Onset               ۶۶
Table 4.13: T-test for both experimental groups                                                     ۶۷
Table 4.14: Paired Samples Test for the experimental group 1                          ۶۸
Table 4.15: Paired Samples Test for the experimental group 2                          ۶۹
Table 4.16: Independent Samples Test Experimental 1                                    ۷۰
and Experimental 2 (Pretest)
Table 4.17: Descriptive Statistics of the motivation Post-test                           ۷۲
Table 4.18: Independent Samples Test Experimental 1                                    ۷۴
and Experimental 2(Posttest)
Figure 4.1: Scatter Plot of Descriptive Statistics of the motivation Post-test
۱.۱ Introduction
Scholars in the field of teaching and learning English as a foreign or second language have long been concerned with finding ways to increase the learners’ motivation and removing the barriers they bring with themselves into the educational environment. Incorporating different instructions and techniques into the classroom adds variety as well as opportunities for a lot of language production. Some believe that these techniques can be used as integral part of the class. Using storytelling and role playing in EFL classes have gained special attention in recent years. If the teacher believes that the activity will work and the necessary support is provided, it can be very successful. However, if the teacher is not convinced about the validity of using role-play, the activity “will fall flat on its face just as you expected it to” (Ladousse, 1987, p.7). A widely spread and one of the best communicative activities as well as cooperative learning is a role play which trains the students in the classroom to cope with unpredictable real-life situations in an English speaking environment.  Ladousse (1987) points out the special reasons for using role play in the lessons. It puts students in situations in which they are required to use and develop language necessary in social relationships and helps them to build up their social skills. Using role play is useful especially while teaching shy students who have difficulty participating in conversations about themselves. Through this activity they are put into various roles and no longer feel that their own personality is implicated. Role play is an essential communicative technique which develops fluency, promotes interaction in the classroom and increases motivation.
Nowadays, with the development of communication technology, the necessity of learning English as one of the most important languages of the world became more apparent. Therefore, the need for learning communicative skills increases. On important issue in teaching – learning settings is psychological ones like stress, anxiety, and motivation. The present study deals with the effect of two applicable instructions of teaching on motivation. It is important that educators recognize the impact of the tasks on their students and ensuring that they are considering learners academic and emotional needs.
However, storytelling has a strong effect on learners’ perception and comprehension. Baker and Greene (1977) assert “storytelling increases the listeners’ awareness-sense of wonder, of mystery, of reverence for life” (p.17).
Louise Phillips (2000), in her research about storytelling mentioned the importance and effect of storytelling: There is enough research that has found valuable learning potential in storytelling experiences for children. This research indicates that storytelling  “(a)enhances children’s imagination” (Raines and Isbell, 1994;pp. 264-265); “(b) supports and improves children’s social lives” (Britsch, 1992; p. 80); “(c) develops their cognitive skills such as ‘deferred imitation’, speculation and knowledge”(Britsch, 1992; p.23; Nicolopoulou, Scales and Weintramb, 1994; p. 103; Mallan, 1991;p. 12); “(d) contributes significantly to all aspects of language development” (Cooper, Collins and Saxby, 1992; Mallan, 1991); and “(e) is an effective bridge to early literacy” (Bruner, 1986; Rosen, 1988 as cited in Miller and Mehler, 1994).
The power and value of reading to children is indisputable (Trealease, 1985; Hall, 1992; Snow, 1992 as cited in Tallant, 1992). In addition to great pleasure, it offers for children both story structure and makes them ready to become independent reader (Tallant, 1992).
It should be noted that role playing activities help the students to experience the “real-world” situations (Oberle, 2004, p 199). Van Ments (1983) mentioned three main advantages of role-playing activities: (a) they are positive and safe in dealing with attitudes and feelings, (b) they provide a safe venue for expressing personal and sometimes unpopular attitudes and opinions, and (c) “role-playing is highly motivating as the majority of students enjoy these types of activities and become more inspired learners (as Cited in Graves, 2008).
On the other hand, motivation is considered as a key feature in the success of language learning. In fact, Dörnyei (2000) puts that “motivation provides the primary impetus to embark upon learning, and later the driving force to sustain the long and often tedious learning process” (p.425). With regard to the importance of comparison of digital and traditional role-play among Iranian EFL Learners’ proficiency in motivation, most scholars have written paper about the importance of role-playing in motivation.

  • Statement of the Problem

Teaching is a process in which teachers have to consider many different aspects if they want to make this process successful such as students level, background, social context, interests, purposes, personality, age, learning styles, abilities, and personality characteristics. About those factors and others, Lightbown and Spada (1997, p. 33) believe: “in addition to personality characteristics, other factors generally considered to be relevant to language learning are intelligence, aptitude, motivation, and attitudes.”
According to AbuêndiaPadilha (1999), it is really important for teachers to promote learner’s confidence by focusing on some issues and topics which make them interested. De Almeida believes that “in this way, learners will be able to continue with their learning process in a meaningful way. Not only can it provide a good language environment, but also motivation.” (۲۰۱۱, p.4)
Ericksen (1978) believes that “Effective learning in the classroom depends on the teacher’s ability . to maintain the interest that brought students to the course in the first place” (Ericksen, 1978, p. 3).
Researchers try to find a way to increase the learners’ motivation and interests and also decrease the amount of difficulty they encounter when they want to learn a new language.
It is widely agreed that learning takes place since activities are engaging and memorable. Research has also shown that well-organized everyday teaching practices and techniques have a great effect in contrast to special efforts to attack motivation directly (Ericksen, 1978).
In line with the discussion presented so far and because of the necessity for motivating instruction in an EFL learning setting, this study sought to compare the effect of storytelling and role playing on EFL learners’ motivation.
تعداد صفحه : ۱۴۷
قیمت : ۱۴۷۰۰ تومان

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