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پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:A Scrutiny of In-service Training Programs for EFL Teachers and the Development of a Model Based on Language Teachers’ Perceptions

پایان نامه رشته :زبان انگلیسی

عنوان : A Scrutiny of In-service Training Programs for EFL Teachers and the Development of a Model Based on Language Teachers’ Perceptions

University of Yasouj

Faculty of Literature and Humanities

Department of English Language and Literature


MA Thesis in TEFL


A Scrutiny of In-service Training Programs for EFL Teachers and the Development of a Model Based on Language Teachers’ Perceptions



  1. J. Jabbari, PhD

  2. Kazemi, PhD



  1. Zarei, PhD

October 2013



As language teachers play a pivotal role in the betterment of language education, teacher-training programs, pre-service and in-service training programs alike, have been in place to enable teachers to accomplish the important roles expected of them. However, not due attention has been paid to the effectiveness and practicality of these programs. Among those who can pass informed judgments on the effectiveness of such programs are language teachers themselves.  However, their perceptions are not consistently taken into account while deciding on these programs. Accordingly, the current study aimed to scrutinize in-service training programs for EFL teachers and to develop a model which is hoped to be practical and effective. To this end, seven English teachers were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were subjected to qualitative content analysis. In addition, based on the results of the semi-structured interview and the related literature, an In-Service Teacher Training Programs Questionnaire (ISTTPQ) was developed by the researcher to evaluate the current in-service teacher training programs. Following the validation of the instrument through a pilot study, the questionnaire was administrated to 290 state high school teachers in Yasouj and Shiraz, who were selected through cluster sampling. The qualitative data analysis revealed that teachers were not satisfied with the current in-service training programs. They stated that these programs could not bring about any real changes in their performance and did not have any effective impact on them. Drawing on the ideas expressed by the interviewees and an extensive review of literature a questionnaire was developed which could serve as a framework for evaluating teacher training programs. In addition, the questionnaire was administered to the teachers to decide to evaluate the programs they had attended and come up with an optimum model of in-service teacher training program.

Keywords: Training, Evaluation, Teachers’ perceptionsIn-service teacher training


Table of Contents

Contents                                                                                                                 Page








۱.۱ Introduction. 1

۱.۲ Statement of the Problem. 5

۱.۳ Significance of the Study. 6

۱.۴ Research Questions . 7

۱.۵. Definition of Key Terms.7

۱.۶. Organization of the thesis.9


۲.۱ Introduction 11

۲.۲ Teaching and Learning English  . ۱۱

۲.۳ The Need for Teacher Training. 12

۲.۴. Teacher Training Programs Scrutinized 14

۲.۵. Models of Teacher Training 14

۲.۵.۱ Wallace’s Models.14

۲.۵.۱.۱ The craft model. 15

۲.۵.۱.۲ The applied science model 15

۲.۵.۲. Day’s Model.17

Contents                                                                                                                 Page

۲.۵.۲.۱. The Apprentice – Expert Model17

۲.۵.۲.۲. The Rationalist Model.17

۲.۵.۲.۳. The Case Studies Model17

۲.۵.۲.۴. The Integrative Model.17

۲.۵.۳. Bramley’s Model.18

۲.۶. Evaluating Educational Programs.18

۲.۶.۱. Ornstein and Hunkins’ Model.21

۲.۷ Evaluating Teacher Training Programs.26

۲.۷.۱ Hamblin’s Model28

          ۲.۷.۲ Brinkerhoff’s Six-Stage Evaluation Model29

۲.۷.۳ Kirkpatrick’s Model.29

۲.۷.۴ Woodward’s Model30

۲.۷.۴.۱ The evaluation of trainees: the objectives model30

۲.۷.۴.۲ The evaluation of trainees: the process model30

۲.۷.۴.۳ The evaluation by trainees.31

۲.۸ Experimental Studies on In-service Training Programs.31

۲.۹ The Summary35


۳.۱ Introduction.37

۳.۲Design of the Study37

۳.۳ Sample.38

Contents                                                                                                                 Page

۳.۳.۱ Sampling procedure. 38

۳.۳.۲ Participants 39

۳.۴ Instrumentation 39

۳.۴.۱ Teachers’ semi-structured Interviews40

۳.۴.۲ In-Service Teacher Training Programs Questionnaire41

۳.۴.۲.۱ Development of the Questionnaire41

۳.۵ Data Collection Procedure . 41

۳.۶ Data Analysis Procedure 42


۴.۱ Introduction 43

۴.۲ Findings43

۴.۲.۱ Findings of the Qualitative Data Collection (teachers’ interviews)43

۴.۲.۱.۱ Codification of the Data44

۴.۲.۱.۱.۱ Open Coding.44

۴.۲.۱.۱.۲ Axial Coding.47

۴.۲.۱.۱.۳ Selective Coding.48

۴.۲.۲. Development of the ISTTPQ.49

۴.۲.۲.۱ Development of the Questionnaire Items .50

۴.۲.۲.۲ Content and Face Validity.50

۴.۲.۲.۳ Pilot Study.51

۴.۲.۲.۴ Reliability52

۴.۲.۲.۵ Construct Validity54

۴.۲.۲.۵.۱ Factor Analysis.54

۴.۲.۲.۶ Reassessment of Internal Consistency of the Questionnaire.60

۴.۲.۳ Findings of the Quantitative Data Collection (Questionnaire)60

۴.۲.۳.۱ Demographic information of the participants60

۴.۲.۳.۲ Descriptive analysis of the data.61

Contents                                                                                                                 Page

۴.۳.۱ Needs Analysis.67

۴.۳.۲ Planning67

۴.۳.۳ The Content of the In-service Program68

     ۴.۳.۴ The Process of the In-service Training Program69

۴.۳.۵ Evaluation of the In-Service Training Program.69

۴.۴ Discussion.69


۵.۱ Introduction 74

۵.۲ Summary 74

۵.۳ Conclusion 74

۵.۴ Pedagogical Implications . 75

۵.۵ Limitations of the Study 75

۵.۶ Suggestions for Further Research 76



List of Tables

Contents                                                                                                                 Page

Table 2.1 Provus’s Discrepancy Evaluation Model21

Table 3.1 Demographic Information of the participants 39

Table 4.1 Item-total Statistics.53

Table 4.2 Item-total Statistics.53

Table 4.3 Reliability Analysis of the ISTTPQ54

Table 4.4 KMO and Bartlett’s Test.55

Table 4.5 Total Variance Explained for ISTTPQ.55

Table 4.6 Rotated Component Matrix of the ISTTPQ56

Table 4.7 The Summary Table of Items Belonging to Each Factor.59

Table 4.8 Reliability Analysis of ISTTPQ60

Table 4.9 Percentage, Mean, and Sig. in Factor 1of the analysis.61

Table 4.10 Percentage, Mean, and Sig. in Factor 2 of the analysis63

Table 4.11 Percentage, Mean, and Sig. in Factor 3 of the analysis64

Table 4.12 Percentage, Mean, and Sig. in Factor 4 of the analysis65

Table 4.13 Percentage, Mean, and Sig. in Factor 5 of the analysis 65

Table 4.14 Percentage, Mean, and Sig. in Factor 6 of the analysis66

Table 4.15 Percentage, Mean, and Sig. in Factor 7 of the analysis66

List of Figures

Contents                                                                                                                 Page


Figure 2.1The craft model of professional education 15

Figure 2.2 Applied science model 15

Figure 2.3 Reflective model.16

Figure 2.4The difference between Formative and Summative evaluation.20

Figure 2.5 Provus’s Discrepancy Evaluation Model22

Figure 2.6 Stake’s Congruence – Contingency Model.23

Figure 2.7 Stufflebeam’s Context, Input, Process, Product Model24

Figure 2.8 Expressions of levels used in training evaluation models

by different authors.28

Figure 2.9 The Six-Stage Model as a Cycle.29

Figure 2.10 Comparison of terms used in different training

program evaluation Models31

Figure 4.1 Categories and Subcategories emerging from the Content Analysis49




Learning a foreign language, especially English, has increasingly become more vital the world over. This is appreciable when we consider that we live in a globalized world where English is used as a lingua franca. Over the course of time, teaching English as a foreign language has gained considerable significance so much so that it has established itself as an educational field that is worth researching within the general educational system.

Since the human life has been changed radically by the development of the technologies and the improvement of the knowledge, the need for qualified teachers can be felt even more. Therefore, teachers should improve their knowledge and skills and adjust themselves to the new technology. Thus, to keep up with these changes, teachers need to be trained continuously and become more efficient in their jobs.

For the last two decades, there have been a lot of debates on the teacher’s preparation and teacher’s development. According to Lanier and Little (1986), teacher education as a field of study has not found its right place in the academy. In teacher education field, teacher educators play highly important roles; however, most of the time, they are not taken into account in the research conducted into their work. However, this situation has changed since the 1990s as university researchers, law makers, and policy analysts have paid increasing attention to what teacher educators do. From that time, teacher education has been recognized as an object of academic research.

Yet, it is difficult for teachers to be self-sufficient due to the need for specialization of the new education-teaching programs, new teaching strategies and new technologies. As a result, according to Saban (2000), teachers can develop their qualifications and achieve professional identity through both pre- and in-service

training programs, hence, the notion of lifelong learning.

It is obvious that the quality of education is influenced by the quality of teachers and their teaching. Teachers first gain an ‘entry-level proficiency’ in teacher education institutions in pre-service training programs, and ‘mastery-level proficiency’ is obtained after a wide understanding of teaching and acquiring skills based on practical experience in in-service training  programs. Each teacher needs to pass in-service education and training (commonly abbreviated as INSET) programs for the initial professional training. In-service training programs are the major elements in solving the difficulties facing teachers’ development (Craft, 2000; Day, 1999; Hammadou, 2004; Lee 2007; Sugrue, 2001).

All EFL teachers concede that the profession of teaching English entails a persistent development and innovation on their behalf. There are numerous ways in which teachers can improve themselves. One way is by participating voluntarily or otherwise in teacher training programs. As Özen (1997, p. 2) states, in-service teacher training programs are considered as inimitable opportunities in which teachers can improve their professional and individual competence. Due to this, more and more pre-service and in-service teacher training programs are offered in teacher-training institutions.

The need for constant improvement in the profession of teaching calls for ‘teacher professional development’. In the process of the development of well-prepared teachers, well-designed pre-service and in-service training programs are very important. According to Cochran-Smith and Lytle (2001), in the past, in-service training programs had a transmission-oriented approach in which teachers were the recipients of knowledge from teacher educators; now the emphasis has shifted to the constructivist approach, where teachers concentrate on what they know, and they are no longer considered as a tabula rasa and are believed to bring their prior knowledge and personal experience into the new learning environment.

One of the advantages of in-service programs is that they provide a situation for teachers to reflect on their practices so that they will be aware of themselves as teachers and keep up with the new theories and methods in teaching and learning. The crucial contribution of in-service programs is to motivate both teachers and instructors and to make them aware of their weaknesses and strengths.

‘In-service training’ is a term used to describe a set of activities and requirements generally falling under the heading of ‘professional development’. In-service training program is a program intended to improve the performance of all personnel already holding assigned positions in a school setting or to implement a specified innovation or program (Sapp, 1996). It is a key factor in influencing the professional development of teachers and, thus, contributes to the improvement of their knowledge if teachers are actively involved in the process (Saiti & Saitis, 2006). As Locke states, in-service training is accepted as an effective method of increasing the knowledge, developing the skills, and promoting positive attitudes of teachers. Once teachers have received their certification in teaching and are employed in a professional position, the in-service training programs are used as a way to continue their education (Locke, 1984). Perron (1991) gives a definition of in-service training programs according to the Education Information Network in the European Union (EURYDICE): “a variety of activities and trainings in which teachers become involved so as to broaden their knowledge, improve their skills and assess and develop their professional approach”(Perron, 1991), 137-152.

Nevertheless, at this moment it is necessary to ponder on the fact that teacher training and teacher development are considered synonymous. However, Freeman (1982) makes a distinction between the two terms. According to him, training contends with erecting specific teaching skills, for instance, how to sequence a lesson or how to teach a grammar point. However, the focus of development is on the individual teacher-on the process of contemplation, assessment, and changes- which can result in doing a better job and in personal and professional growth. In other words, development is an umbrella term which takes account of training and other ways of improving.

As mentioned earlier, teacher training is one of the ways in which teachers can develop. As Harmer (2002) states, doing action research, reading the literature especially methodology books, journals and magazines, and exchanging ideas with colleagues are other forms of development.

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