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پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:The Affirmative Impact of Visual and Verbal Techniques upon Raising Vocabulary Achievement of Iranian High School Students

پایان نامه رشته :زبان انگلیسی

عنوان : The Affirmative Impact of Visual and Verbal Techniques upon Raising Vocabulary Achievement of Iranian High School Students





Thesis for Receiving M.A. Degree on English Language Teaching

English as a Foreign Language (TEFL)



The Affirmative Impact of Visual and Verbal Techniques upon Raising Vocabulary Achievement of Iranian High School Students



  1. Gowhary. Ph.D.



  1. Rahimipour. Ph.D.


Winter 2014


Table of Contents

Abstract 1

Chapter One: Introduction

۱.۱. Introduction 3

۱.۱.۱. Knowing a Word. 13

۱.۱.۲. Definitions of vocabulary. 14

۱.۱.۳. Second Language Vocabulary. 15

۱.۱.۴. Definition of the technical terms: Verbal and Visual Techniques 16

۱.۱.۴.۱. Verbal language features. 16

۱.۱.۴.۲. Visual language features. 17

۱.۱.۵. Significance in language learning. 18

۱.۱.۶. Statement of the Problem. 19

۱.۱.۷. Research questions. 20

۱.۱.۸. Research Hypotheses. 20

۱.۱.۹. Organization of the study. 21

Chapter Two: Review of Literature

۲.۱. Literature review. 23

۲.۱.۱. Background to vocabulary teaching. 23

۲.۱.۲. Vocabulary and Its Importance 27

۲.۱.۳. EFL Vocabulary. 29

۲.۱.۳.۱. Definition of Vocabulary 29

۲.۱.۳.۲. Types of Vocabulary. 29

۲.۱.۳.۳. The Role of Vocabulary in TEFL 30

۲.۱.۴. Factors Affecting Vocabulary Learning and Retention 31

۲.۱.۵. What does it mean to know a word?. 32

۲.۱.۶. Verbal and visual techniques of vocabulary teaching. 35

۲.۱.۷. What is visual instruction in new vocabulary learning?. 38

۲.۱.۸. The effect of synonymy on L2 vocabulary achievement 40

۲.۱.۹. The effect of exemplification on vocabulary achievement. 41

۲.۱.۱۰. The effect of visual aids on vocabulary achievement. 43

Chapter Three: Methodology

۳.۱. Introduction 48

۳.۲. Participants. 48

۳.۳. Instruments. 49

۳.۳.۱. Visual and verbal 49

۳.۴. Data Colection Procedure. 50

۳.۵. Data analysis 52

Chapter Four: Results and Discussion

۴.۱. Introduction. 55

۴.۲. Results and discussion. 55

۴.۲.۱. Semiotics and vocabulary teaching. 62

۴.۲.۲. Dual coding theory (DCT). 63

۴.۲.۳. Cognitive load theory (CLT) 65

Chapter five: Summary and Conclusion

۵.۱. Discussion. 68

۵.۲. Procedure 68

۵.۳. Conclusion. 70

۵.۴. Future Directions 72

۵.۵. Limitations 73

۵.۶. Recommendations to School Administrations and Supervisors. 74

۵.۷. Recommendations to Teachers of English 74

۵.۸. Summary. 74

References. 77

Appendices. 82

List of Table

Table 4.1. pretest score means of the groups under study. 57

Table 4.2.pretest scores means 57

Table 4.3. Posttest scores 58

Table 4.4. estimating posttest scores based on AVNOVA method 58

Table 4.5. Pretest and posttest raw scores of groups 1, 2, and 3. 59

List of Figure

Figure4.1.Vocabulary achievement of three experimental groups in pre and posttest      ۶۱


This report investigated the sensible impact of verbal, visual and a combination of verbal-visual techniques on vocabulary enhancement of Iranian high school students in Sirvan (Iran). The subjects were 60 male native speakers of Persian and Kurdish in intermediate level of L2 proficiency ranging in age from 15 to17. In order to have homogeneous groups, the students last year scores were look at between the three groups of 12-17, there part. In order to state the reliability of this test, the split –half method was utilized .The second one was question elicited demographic information such as names, age and job of father. They were selected from among seven classes and divided into three groups of 20, namely group 1, 2 and 3.The classes were held two days in a week, each day one hour, in Winter, 2014. The lexical items were taught to experimental groups by verbal (synonymy and exemplification), visual (pictures, flashcards, blackboard drawings and photographs) and verbal-visual techniques respectively. Put another way, group1 was treated by using visual aids (pictures, photographs, and flash cards), groups 2 was treated by verbal techniques (synonyms and exemplification). For this group no aids were used, but rather they used exemplification and synonyms, group2 was treated by using visual aids (pictures, photographs, and flash cards). For group 3, verbal and visual techniques were used complementary to convey meaning of the lexis. During the ten sessions of the treatment, 70 vocabularies were instructed to the three groups, Results of one way ANOVA showed that when verbal or visual techniques were used alone, verbal techniques manifested more vocabulary acquisition than visual modality and among three techniques employed in this study, complementary use of verbal-visual techniques was the most effective. It may be concluded that in directing the learners toward the ability of vocabulary skill, teachers should not solely rely on verbal cues and can benefit to a large extent from non-verbal aids. Results obtained from this study may have pedagogical implications in the areas of syllabus design and teaching methodology.

Keywords: Vocabulary achievement, Verbal techniques, Visual techniques, EFL

Chapter One:


In reality, vocabulary is a vital part of language that students need to master in order to communicate effectively. Moreover, it is considered the base for the other skills. The ability to grasp the meaning of new words is a vital skill to strengthenreading and listening comprehension. This can positively impact overall academic success and can develop skills for real world applications. This calls for more attention to thisimportant skill, i.e., vocabulary.

Researchers have seen that students face serious problems regarding this aspect of language (vocabulary learning). Learners tend throughout learning stages to favor interesting methods which make interacting, exciting and fun learning. This motivated me to conduct the present study which aimed to investigate the effectiveness of visual and verbal techniques on vocabulary on vocabulary achievement.

Laraba (2007:136) states that “foreign language vocabulary learning is determined by the similarities that may exist, at different levels, between the first language and the second or foreign language learnt. Nation (1990: 31) suggests the following list of the different kinds of knowledge that a person must master in order to know a word:

۱. The meaning(s) of the word

۲. The written form of the word

۳. The spoken form of the word

۴. The grammatical behavioral of the word

۵. The collocations of the word

۶. The register of the word

۷. The associations of the word

۸.The frequency of the word

English has become the language of international business, diplomacy and professions. After all, it is the language of the United Nations. English has become the most dominate language in the world. As time passes, more people are learning English. Nowadays, the whole world seems to speak English. As David (2009) asserts, it is the language of travel, tourism, science and technology. It became a universal language that covered all aspect of life, where people of different nationalities used it to communicate with each other and it became the language of science, technology, politics, economy and education. This universal acknowledgment of English as the language of today and the need for good communication skill in English has created a huge demand for teaching English around the world. This has put a tremendous pressure on scholars to cope with this demand and to contribute to the development of a new and different teaching methodology for teaching English as a foreign language Hamdona(2007:1). Educators know that words and vocabulary strongly impact learners’ lives. In fact, educated individuals are often identified by their written and spoken vocabularies (Blachowicz& Fisher, 2004). Beck, McKeown and Kucan (2002) in their book, Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction, introduce the first chapter with a reminder that vocabulary plays a “critical rolein people’s lives and future possibilities. A large vocabulary repertoire facilitates becoming an educated person to the extent that vocabulary knowledge is strongly related to reading proficiency” (p. 1). In order to be aware of the full importance vocabulary plays in the lives of adolescents, it is necessary to first have a comprehensive definition of vocabulary. According to Lehr, Osborn, and Hiebert (2004), vocabulary is knowledge of words and their meanings. For vocabulary and word knowledge, Cronbach (1942) describes several qualitative dimensions, defined as the kind of knowledge one has about a word and the uses to which that knowledge can be put:

Generalization: The ability to define a word.

Application: The ability to select or recognize situations appropriate to a word.

Breadth: Knowledge of multiple meanings.

Precision: The ability to apply a term correctly to all situations and to recognize appropriate use.

Availability: The actual use of a word in thinking and discourse.

تعداد صفحه : ۱۱۴
قیمت : ۱۴۷۰۰ تومان

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