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پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:The Effect of Project Works on Learner’s Autonomy and Language proficiency of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners in Two High schools in District Four in Mashhad

پایان نامه رشته :زبان انگلیسی:

عنوان : The Effect of Project Works on Learner’s Autonomy and Language proficiency of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners in Two High schools in District Four in Mashhad

Islamic Azad University

Torbat-e Heydarieh Branch

The Effect of Project Works on Learner’s Autonomy and Language proficiency of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners in Two High schools in District Four in Mashhad

 

A Thesis Proposal Submitted to the English Department at Islamic Azad University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in

English Language Teaching (ELT)

Supervisor

Dr. Mohammad Ali Fatemi

 

Feb.2015

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title                                                                                                                    Page
APPROVAL PAGE                                                                                               ii
DEDICATION                                                                                                       iii
AKNOWLEDGEMNENTS                                                                                   iv
DECLARATION                                                                                                    v
TABLE OF CONTNETS                                                                                       vi
LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                  vii
ABSTARCT                                                                                                            xi
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction                                                                                 ۱
    ۱.۱ Background and purpose                                                                                 ۱
    ۱.۲ Statement of the problem                                                                                ۴
    ۱.۳ Research questions                                                                                          ۵
    ۱.۴ Research hypotheses                                                                                       ۵
    ۱.۵ Significance of the study                                                                                ۶
    ۱.۶ (De)Limitations of the study                                                                          ۸
    ۱.۷ Definition of  Key Terms                                                                               ۹
۱.۷.۱ Learner autonomy                                                                            ۹
۱.۷.۲ Project works                                                                                  ۱۰
CHAPTER TWO: Review of Literature                                                                ۱۱
   ۲.۱. Theoretical Background & Concepts                                                           ۱۱
    ۲.۱ Overview                                                                                                     ۳۲
CHAPTER THREE: Methodology                                                                       ۳۴
    ۳.۱ Overview                                                                                                     ۳۴
    ۳.۲ Participants and setting                                                                                  ۳۴
    ۳.۳ Instrumentation                                                                                              ۳۴
              ۳.۳.۱. Power points                                                                                    ۳۶
 ۳.۳.۲. Students’ logbooks                                                                                      ۳۸
۳.۳.۳. Posters and wall newspapers                                                                      ۴۰
۳.۳.۴. Preparing brochure or pamphlets                                                                ۴۱
۳.۳.۵. Making authentic material for future use in the classroom                        ۴۱
۳.۴ Procedure                                                                                                                   ۴۲
    ۳.۵ Study design                                                                                                   ۵۱
CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussions                                                           ۵۲
    ۴.۱ Overview                                                                                                       ۶۴
CHAPTER FIVE: Conclusions                                                                               ۷۲
    ۵.۱ Overview                                                                                                       ۷۲
    ۵.۲ Summary of the findings                                                                               ۷۳
    ۵.۳ Conclusions                                                                                                   ۷۴
    ۵.۴ Pedagogical implications                                                                               ۷۶
    ۵.۵. Suggestions for further research                                                                  ۷۷
REFERENCES                                                                                                       ۷۸
APPENDICES
    Appendix A  Questionnaire to investigate the Learner autonomy                      ۸۵
 
Appendix B   Interview questions                                                                       ۸۸

Appendix  C   Common reference levels                                                                 ۸۹

Appendix D  Projects implemented during twelve sessions in brief                   ۹۲

   BIO-DATA                                                                                                            ۱۱۳
Tile page in Farsi

Abstract in Farsi                                                                                                    ۱۱۷
Approval page in Farsi                                                                                                   ۱۱۸

Declaration Page in Farsi                                                                                          ۱۱۹

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table a- The merits of the PBL procedure in comparison to the traditional classrooms      ۷
Table b – The pre-test scores of both groups                                                                       ۴۳
Table c – The mean scores of the two groups on the test section                                         ۴۴
Table 1- Tests of Normality for experimental group                                                            ۵۳
Table 2- Tests of Normality for control group                                                                      ۵۴
Table 3- Group Statistics on autonomy                                                                                 ۵۴
Table 4- Independent Samples Test on autonomy                                                                ۵۵
Table 5- Group Statistics for reading pre-test                                                                       ۵۶
Table 6- Independent Samples Test for reading pre-test                                                       ۵۷
Table 7- Group Statistics for writing pre-test                                                                        ۵۷
Table 8 -Independent Samples Test for writing pre-test                                                        ۵۸
Table 9- Group Statistics on speaking pre-test                                                                      ۵۹
Table 10- Independent Samples Test on speaking pre-test                                                    ۶۱
Table 11- Group Statistics on listening pre-test                                                                     ۶۱
Table 12- Independent Samples Test on listening pre-test                                                    ۶۲
Table 13- Group Statistics on reading post-test                                                                     ۶۳
Table 14- Independent Samples Test for reading post-test                                                    ۶۳
Table 15- Table 9 Group Statistics for writing post-test                                                        ۶۴
Table 16- Independent Samples Test for writing post-test                                                    ۶۵
Table 17- Group Statistics on speaking post-test                                                                  ۶۶

Table 18- Independent Samples Test on speaking post-test                                                 ۶۷
Table 19- Group Statistics on listening post-test                                                                  ۶۷
Table 20- Independent Samples Test on listening post-test                                                 ۶۸

Abstract

The present empirical research reports on the findings of a study that investigated the effects of Project Work on Language proficiency and autonomy level of Iranian Intermediate Learners in an EFL setting. The method of teaching and learning English language through Project works is a contrast to the current teaching of English in Iranian high schools. The researcher after implementing FCE exam as the pre-test to homogenize 250 female students of two high schools in district 4 Mashhad, chose 50 students as the participants of the study. They were divided randomly into two groups of experimental and control groups. Through 12 sessions of instruction in three months’ time students in experimental group went under different project works introduced by the researcher. At the same time the students in the control group were provided with five short stories as their reading comprehension assignments. In order to collect the required data, a Cambridge FCE proficiency test was employed by the researcher as both pre-test and post-test. To check the autonomy level of the participants, a Learner Autonomy Questionnaire developed by Zhang and Li (2004, p. 23), was administered. At the end an interview was performed by the researcher to perceive the students’ ideas about the project work. Regarding the first hypothesis,” Project works do not have any significant effect on Intermediate Iranian EFL learners’ autonomy “, descriptive statistics of the autonomy questionnaire indicated that the mean of the autonomy level of the experimental group (M= 42.80) was higher than that of the control group (M= 26.76), therefor the hypothesis was rejected. The second hypothesis was not completely rejected. The projects applied had enabled the students to develop positive attitudes towards all English skills except for the reading skill. The results of the interview indicated that most students enjoyed doing projects. The study revealed that project works can be an effective way in teaching foreign languages and could create a gradual shift away from the traditional forms of teaching and learning in an EFL Iranian Intermediate setting.

Keywords: project works, language proficiency, learner autonomy.

Chapter One.

Introduction

      ۱.۱. Background and purpose

Nowadays English is considered as one of the most important international languages which are widely used throughout the world. It is also the medium of communication, therefore the demand for high proficiency in the use of English has increased in the past decades. Today the world’s economy, culture, education, science and politics are under the influence of globalization and English is the medium through which a lot of communications are carried out. This study focuses on the teaching of English through project works to high school students in Iran.

English language plays an important role not only in education, but also in foreign trade, overseas jobs, and study opportunities abroad. It is taught in all secondary schools in Iran and is given some weight in the university entrance examinations. It is also the language for economic negotiations and political matters throughout the world. Therefore it is a vital tool in the international world and the acceptance and use of English in international education is very demanding.

Kumaravadivelu (2008) in his book Understanding Language Teaching stated that a source of tiresome ambiguity that influences language teaching is the absence of principled way which classifies language teaching methods in a coherent fashion. During 1980s various process-oriented approaches were experimented by several scholars including Comprehension approach (Winitz,1981), Natural approach (Krashen & Terrell, 1983),Proficiency- oriented approach (Omaggio,1986), Communicational approach (Prabhu,1987), Lexical approach(Lewis1993; Willis,1990) and Process approach ( Legutke & Thomas, 1991). However, there are particular instructional procedures that have kept their impact on language teaching among which Project-Based Instruction (PBI) is considered to be fitted with quite effective learning opportunities for teaching languages in various contexts. Project work is usually a group work, for this reason it is very important to establish a good working relationship between the students. This develops students´ social skills. They make a choice altogether, discuss the problem and choose the best strategy to reach their goal. Then students have to share their work, take their own role in the work and the responsibility for their part of the work. They have to cooperate and this cooperation is really important in their future life. Moreover, it should be considered as an important motivating factor.

This is a classroom research project that investigated if integrating a Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach into the typical classroom syllabus could foster learner’s autonomy ad language proficiency of EFL learners of two high schools in District four in Mashhad.

تعداد صفحه : ۱۳۱
قیمت : ۱۴۷۰۰ تومان

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