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پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:The Effect of Three Semantic Mapping Strategies on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners in Kerman

پایان نامه رشته :زبان انگلیسی

عنوان : پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:The Effect of Three Semantic Mapping Strategies on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners in Kerman


Islamic Azad University

Bandar-Abbas Branch

Department of Foreign Languages

The Effect of Three Semantic Mapping Strategies on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners in Kerman


 Dr. Mohammad Shariati


 Dr. Masoud Sharififar

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Master of Arts in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (M.A)

May, 2011

Table of Contents
Table of Contents .II
List of TablesVI
List of Graphs.VII
Abstract VIII

  • Overview1
  • Rationale and Background1

۱-۲-۱. Foreign Language Learning Strategies.1
۱-۲-۲. Learning Strategies and Learning Skills2
۱-۲-۳. Learning Strategies and Reading Comprehension3
۱-۲-۳-۱. Visual Reading vs. Reading Comprehension5
۱-۲-۴. Semantic Mapping and Reading Comprehension .6
۱-۲-۴-۱. The Effectiveness of Semantic Maps8
۱-۲-۴-۲. Problems of Implementation. .12

  • Statement of the Problem 13
  • Purpose of Study14
  • The Significance of the Study15
  • Research Questions16
  • Research Hypotheses16
  • Definition of Key Words17

۱-۸-۱. Semantic Map17
۱-۸-۱-۱. Characteristics of Semantic Maps.20
۱-۸-۱-۲. Constructing semantic Maps.22
۱-۸-۱-۳. Steps of Semantic Mapping24
۱-۸-۱-۴. Types of Semantic Mapping.24
۱-۸-۲. Reading Comprehension. 32
۱-۸-۲-۱. Decoding33
۱-۸-۲-۲. Vocabulary.34
۱-۸-۲-۳. World Knowledge34
۱-۸-۲-۴. Active Comprehension Strategies35

  • Limitations of the Study.36

۲-۱. Introduction.37
۲-۲. Theories Relating to Semantic Maps37
۲-۳. Theoretical Section.39
۲-۴. Practical Section42
۳-۱. Introduction.55
۳-۲. Participants55
۳-۳. Instrumentation.56
۳-۴. Procedures.58
۳-۴-۱. Procedures of Developing a Semantic Map58
۳-۴-۲. Procedures of a Semantic Mapping Activity61
۳-۴-۲-۱. Introducing the Topic.61
۳-۴-۲-۲. Brainstorming.61
۳-۴-۲-۳. Categorization62
۳-۴-۲-۴. Personalizing the Map63
۳-۴-۲-۵. Post-assignment Synthesis.63
۳-۴-۳. Procedures of Reading Tests64
۳-۵. Design.66
۴-۱. Introduction.67
۴-۲. Validity and Reliability of the Study68
۴-۲-۱. Validity of the Pre-test and Post-test68
۴-۲-۲. Validity of the Semantic Maps.68
۴-۳. Reliability of the Tests69
۴-۴. The Conditions of the Research Variables70
۴-۴-۱. Pre-test and Post-test Variable Scores in Experimental Group70
۴-۴-۲. Pre-test and Post-test Variable Scores in Control Group73
۴-۵. Consideration of Research Hypotheses75
۴-۵-۱. First Hypothesis75
۴-۵-۲. Second Hypothesis.78
۵-۱. Introduction.81
۵-۲. Summery.81
۵-۳. Discussion of Findings82
۵-۴. Pedagogical Implications84
۵-۵. Suggestions for Further Study86
Appendix A: Reading Comprehension Test as Pre-test.96
Appendix B:  Reading Comprehension Test as Post-test98
Appendix C: Reading Comprehension Lesson 1 and the Related Semantic map100
Appendix D: Reading Comprehension Lesson 2 and the Related Semantic map102
Appendix E: Reading Comprehension Lesson 3 and the Related Semantic map104
Appendix F: Reading Comprehension Lesson 4 and the Related Semantic map106
Appendix G: Reading Comprehension Lesson 5 and the Related Semantic map108
Appendix H: Reading Comprehension Lesson 6 and the Related Semantic map110
Appendix I: Reading Comprehension Lesson 7 and the Related Semantic map.112
Appendix J: Reading Comprehension Lesson 8 and the Related Semantic map.114

List of Tables
Table 4.1: The correlation of test-retest69
Table 4.2: Pre-test and post-test statistics in experimental group.71
Table 4.3: Pre-test and post-test statistics in control group.73
Table 4.4: T-test statistics for comparison between mean scores of experimental and control groups in post-test76
Table 4.5: The comparison between the pre-test and the post-test in experimental group.77
Table 4.6: The post-test statistics for three subgroups: A, B and C79

List of Graphs
Graph 4.1: Pre-test descriptive statistics in experimental group72
Graph 4.2: Post-test descriptive statistics in experimental group.72
Graph 4.3: Pre-test descriptive statistics in control group74
Graph 4.4: Post-test descriptive statistics in control group74
Graph 4.5: The comparison of the post-test scores distributed in experimental and control group.76
Graph 4.6: Statistics of sub-groups A, B and C in the post-test.80

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of semantic mapping strategies on reading comprehension of learners in intermediate level and also to determine the most effective strategy type among: teacher-initiated, student-mediated and teacher-student interactive strategies. Some 60 female participants in high school participated in the study.
Two valid reading comprehension tests were used in this study as pre-test and post-test. To investigate the effect of semantic mapping strategies a treatment after the pre-test and before the post-test was conducted in order to teach semantic mapping strategies to learners. To analyze the recorded data, Sample T-test was used. To determine the best strategy among the three considered kinds, factor analysis was conducted.
The final analysis showed that using semantic mapping strategies before, during or after reading texts increased the comprehension of the learners and among the three kinds of semantic mapping strategies in this study; teacher-initiated, student-mediated and teacher-student interactive kind; the latter is the most effective one.
Keywords: Semantic mapping strategies, Reading comprehension


  • Overview

The current study investigated the patterns of semantic mapping strategies in reading comprehension texts acquired by Iranian learners of intermediate level. It is essentially a study on the comprehension of texts by EFL learners in Kerman.
The chapter discusses the place of the current study in the context of foreign language reading comprehension and semantic mapping research, the nature of semantic mapping strategies and the need to conduct a study of semantic mapping in reading comprehension within a foreign language learning context. Given the theoretical framework of the study, the main purposes and the significance of the study, two research questions are formulated.

  • Rationale and Background

In this section, going from the general to detailed issues, the basic framework of the present study according to the current learning issues is regarded.

۱.۲.۱ Foreign language learning strategies. Learning strategies are “techniques, approaches, or deliberate actions that students take in order to facilitate the learning and recall of both linguistic and content area information” (Wenden, 1987:6). Oxford (1990) considered that “any specific action taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, and more transferable to new situations” is a language learning strategy. Oxford (1990) divided strategies into two major types, direct and indirect. The indirect strategies are divided into metacognitive, affective, and social strategies. Metacogntive strategies, like advanced organizers, are “actions which go beyond purely cognitive devices, and which provide a way for learners to coordinate their own learning process” (p. 136).
Cohen (1998:8) expressed the following:
Since strategies themselves have sometimes been referred to as ‘good’, ‘effective’, or ‘successful’ and the converse, it needs to be pointed out that with some exceptions, strategies themselves are not inherently good or bad, but have the potential to be used effectively whether by the same learner from one instance within one task to another instance within that same task, from one task to another, or by different learners dealing with the same task. Perhaps if enough learners in a given group successfully use a given strategy in a given task, then claims could be made for the effectiveness of that strategy in that instance for that group. Otherwise, it is safest to refer to what often amounts to panoply of potentially useful strategies for any given task.
Furthermore, various researchers suggested (Ellis, 1994) that one trait of good language learners is that they are able to cater their foreign language learning strategy use to their proficiency level demands.
تعداد صفحه : ۱۲۷
قیمت : ۱۴۷۰۰ تومان

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